Prunus amygdalcus, almond, or sweet almond is a small deciduous tree in the Rosaceae (rose family) which is indigenous to the western Asia, presently it has been naturalized and cultivated and mostly over the Mediterranean regions and Asia minor .The tree is generally up to 30 feet or 7 m tall and have a resemblance to peach or plum and its fruit is botanically categorized as drupe.
The oil of sweet almond is basically liquid which is clear, pale yellow and odorless, and specifically has a bland and nutty flavor. It solidifies under -20 degree Celsius.
The fatty or fixed oil is extracted from the kernels by using traditional mechanical methods, either by cold pressing or expeller pressing. The chemical processes such as Supercritical fluid extraction or solvent extraction are used to produce relatively cheap quality and low-fat almond oil.
The oleum amygdale chiefly consists of the glycerin compounds of oleic acid. Triolein and dioleolinolein triglycrides oleic acid made up to 65-72% of the sweet almond oil. The percentage distribution is:
Oleic acid 62.0 - 86.0 %
Linoleic acid 7.0 - 30.0 %
Palmitic acid 4.0 - 9.0 %
Stearic acid 3 %
It also has sterols, proteins and certain traces of vitamin A, B complex, glutamic and aspiritc acid.
Medicinal use:-It is used as a laxative and act as a solvent for the hemorrhoid injections.
Cosmetic:-Due to the presence of oleic fatty acid it is an excellent moisturizing agent. It helps to treat the various skin related problems like chapped dry hands, soothing various skin allergies like eczema and also act as sebum restoring agent. It is a perfect lubricant as it doesn't have any greasy effect which makes it ideal for massage purpose.
Food products: - It is used as a flavoring agent in various beverages either alcoholic or non-alcoholic. It is also used in various bakery products liked pudding and cakes.